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| Last Updated:: 13/12/2018

Guidelines for application of IUCN red list criteria

 

 

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED (CR)

 

A taxon is Critically Endangered when it is facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild in the immediate future, as defined by any of the following criteria (A to E):

   

     A) Population reduction in the form of either of the following:

         1) An observed, estimated, inferred or suspected reduction of at least 80% over              the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, based on (and           specifying) any of the following:

             a) direct observation

             b) an index of abundance appropriate for the taxon

             c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of                          habitat

             d) actual or potential levels of exploitation

             e) the effects of introduced taxa, hybridisation, pathogens, pollutants,                             competitors or parasites.

          2) A reduction of at least 80%, projected or suspected to be met within the next              10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, based on (and                          specifying) any of (b), (c), (d) or (e) above.

     B) Extent of occurrence estimated to be less than 100 km2 or area of occupancy            estimated to be less than 10 km2, and estimates indicating any two of the                    following:

         1) Severely fragmented or known to exist at only a single location.

         2) Continuing decline, observed, inferred or projected, in any of the following:

             a) extent of occurrence

             b) area of occupancy

             c) area, extent and/or quality of habitat

             d) number of locations or subpopulations

             e) number of mature individuals

          3) Extreme fluctuations in any of the following:

              a) extent of occurrence

              b) area of occupancy

              c) number of locations or subpopulations

              d) number of mature individuals

     C) Population estimated to number less than 250 mature individuals and either:

         1) An estimated continuing decline of at least 25% within three years or one                   generation, whichever is longer or

         2) A continuing decline, observed, projected, or inferred, in numbers of mature             individuals and population structure in the form of either:

             a) severely fragmented (i.e. no subpopulation estimated to contain more than                  50 mature individuals)

             b) all individuals are in a single subpopulation

     D) Population estimated to number less than 50 mature individuals.

     E) Quantitative analysis showing the probability of extinction in the wild is at least        50% within 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer.

 

ENDANGERED (EN)

 

A taxon is Endangered when it is not Critically Endangered but is facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild in the near future, as defined by any of the following criteria (A to E):

     A) Population reduction in the form of either of the following:

          1) An observed, estimated, inferred or suspected reduction of at least 50% over            the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, based on (and            specifying) any of the following:

             a) direct observation

             b) an index of abundance appropriate for the taxon

             c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of                          habitat

             d) actual or potential levels of exploitation

             e) the effects of introduced taxa, hybridisation, pathogens, pollutants,                              competitors or parasites.

          2) A reduction of at least 50%, projected or suspected to be met within the next               10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, based on (and                           specifying) any of (b), (c), (d), or (e) above.

     B) Extent of occurrence estimated to be less than 5000 km2 or area of occupancy          estimated to be less than 500 km2, and estimates indicating any two of the                  following:

         1) Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than five locations.

         2) Continuing decline, inferred, observed or projected, in any of the following:

             a) extent of occurrence

             b) area of occupancy

             c) area, extent and/or quality of habitat

             d) number of locations or subpopulations

             e) number of mature individuals

         3) Extreme fluctuations in any of the following:

             a) extent of occurrence

             b) area of occupancy

             c) number of locations or subpopulations

             d) number of mature individuals

     C) Population estimated to number less than 2500 mature individuals and either:

          1) An estimated continuing decline of at least 20% within five years or two                       generations, whichever is longer, or

          2) A continuing decline, observed, projected, or inferred, in numbers of mature               individuals and population structure in the form of either:

              a) severely fragmented (i.e. no subpopulation estimated to contain more than                 250 mature individuals)

              b) all individuals are in a single subpopulation.

     D) Population estimated to number less than 250 mature individuals.

     E) Quantitative analysis showing the probability of extinction in the wild is at least        20% within 20 years or five generations, whichever is the longer.

  

VULNERABLE (VU)

 

A taxon is Vulnerable when it is not Critically Endangered or Endangered but is facing a high risk of extinction in the wild in the medium-term future, as defined by any of the following criteria (A to E):

     A) Population reduction in the form of either of the following:

         1) An observed, estimated, inferred or suspected reduction of at least 20% over              the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, based on (and            specifying) any of the following:

             a) direct observation

             b) an index of abundance appropriate for the taxon

             c) a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of                          habitat

             d) actual or potential levels of exploitation

             e) the effects of introduced taxa, hybridisation, pathogens, pollutants,                              competitors or parasites.

          2) A reduction of at least 20%, projected or suspected to be met within the next               ten years or three generations, whichever is the longer, based on (and                         specifying) any of (b), (c), (d) or (e) above.

     B) Extent of occurrence estimated to be less than 20,000 km2 or area of occupancy        estimated to be less than 2000 km2, and estimates indicating any two of the                following:

         1) Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than ten locations.

         2) Continuing decline, inferred, observed or projected, in any of the following:

             a) extent of occurrence

             b) area of occupancy

             c) area, extent and/or quality of habitaty

             d) number of locations or subpopulations

             e) number of mature individuals

         3) Extreme fluctuations in any of the following:

             a) extent of occurrence

             b) area of occupancy

             c) number of locations or subpopulations

             d) number of mature individuals

     C) Population estimated to number less than 10,000 mature individuals and either:

          1) An estimated continuing decline of at least 10% within 10 years or three                      generations, whichever is longer, or

          2) A continuing decline, observed, projected, or inferred, in numbers of mature               individuals and population structure in the form of either:

              a) severely fragmented (i.e. no subpopulation estimated to contain more than                 1000 mature individuals)

              b) all individuals are in a single subpopulation

     D) Population very small or restricted in the form of either of the following:

          1) Population estimated to number less than 1000 mature individuals.

          2) Population is characterised by an acute restriction in its area of occupancy                (typically less than 100 km2) or in the number of locations (typically less than            five). Such a taxon would thus be prone to the effects of human activities (or              stochastic events whose impact is increased by human activities) within a                  very short period of time in an unforeseeable future, and is thus capable of                becoming Critically Endangered or even Extinct in a very short period.

     E) Quantitative analysis showing the probability of extinction in the wild is at least        10% within 100 years.

   

       Reference:

       www.iucnredlist.org/static/categories_criteria_2_3#critical